NOTES ON PRIMARY STANDARDS, pH OF ACID-BASE MIXTURES, TITRATION CURVES AND BUFFER SOLUTIONS (UNIT 4 NOTES P. 54-77)

These notes introduce and explain what primary standards are and why they are necessary for titrations. They show how to calculate the final  pH of a mixture produced by adding an acid to a base. They show how the points for Titration Curves can be calculated and the characteristics of strong acid - strong base, weak acid - strong base and strong acid - weak base titration curves, including the pH at the equivalence (stoichiometric) point. Examples and diagrams are shown and explained.  The equilibrium theme is used an expanded throughout this section of notes. Examples and solutions are given for all these types of problems. This is a very valuable resource for teachers and students of Chemistry.

 

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